Class VIII Geography

Chapter - 6 Human Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography

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Chapter end exercise
Q 1.

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) Why are people considered a resource?

(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?

(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?

(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change

(v) What is meant by population composition?

(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?


(i) Human beings, when imparted with proper knowledge, skills or technological know-how, can make the best use of natural resources by transforming physical material into a valuable resource. Therefore, people themselves are considered to be an important resource.

(ii) Certain social, geographical, cultural and economic factors affect the distribution of population in the world. Climatic conditions, flatness of land, soil fertility, fresh water availability and mineral resources are the geographical determinants.  Housing, educational and health facilities, proximity to places of religious and cultural importance, presence of viable employment opportunities are the socio-economic determinants.  The uneven distribution of these factors translates into the uneven distribution of population.

(iii) The death rate has gone down significantly in recent years as a result of abundant supply of food and improvement in medical facilities throughout the world. And even though the death rate has diminished significantly, birth rate has remained very high. As a result, world population has grown rapidly.

(iv) The rate of birth and death are the two most significant factors influencing population change. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 people. The death rate, on the other hand, is the number of deaths per 1000 people. When the former is greater than the latter, the population increases. On the flip side, when the death rate is higher than the birth rate, the population decreases.  Finally, when the two rates are equal, the population remains at a constant.

(v) Population composition is the structure of the population of a particular region. It assists in finding out the number of males and females in the population, their age groups, education and technological know-how, occupations, health conditions, level of income, etc.

(vi) The population pyramid is a graphical illustration that is constructed for the purpose of studying the population composition of countries. It provides information about the number of males and females in the population and their precise age groups. The age group details help in determining the number of dependents and the economically active citizens present in the population.

Chapter end exercise
Q 2.

Tick the correct answer.

  1. Which does the term population distribution refer to?
    1. How population in a specified area changes over time.
    2. The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
    3. The way in which people are spread across a given area.
  2. Which are three main factors that cause population change?
    1. Births, deaths and marriage
    2. Births, deaths and migration
    3. Births, deaths and life expectancy
  3. In 1999, the world population reached
    1. 1 billion
    2. 3 billion
    3. 6 billion
  4. What is a population pyramid?
    1. A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
    2. When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
    3. Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

i.  (c)  The way in which people are spread across a given area.

ii. (b) Births, deaths and migration 

iii.  (c)  6 billion

iv.  (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

Chapter end exercise
Q 3.

Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.

sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely

When people are attracted to an area it becomes ………………….. populated. Factors that influence this include ………………….. climate; good supplies of ………………….. resources and ………………….. land.



When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

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