Class VIII - Geography

Chapter 6 - Human Resources

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Human Resource

  • is the ultimate resource as healthy, educated and motivated people develop resources are per their requirements
  • is one of the building blocks for a nation’s development
  • is not equally distributed over the world
  • differ in their educational levels, age and sex
  • More the population of a country has more it is considered to be rich in human resource.


Distribution of Population

  • The pattern of population distribution refers to the way in which people are spread across the earth’s surface.
  • The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven.
  • Some areas are sparsely populated while some are densely populated.
  • More people live north of the Equator than south of the equator and almost 3/4th of the world’s population lives in the Asian and African continents.
  • Most of the population lives in the tropical region of the world as this region is rich in resources.
  • Very few people live in high latitude areas, tropical deserts, high mountains and areas of equatorial forests.
  • Sixty per cent of the world’s people stay in just 10 countries.
  • China is the most populated country followed by India. USA is the 3rd most populated country followed by Indonesia and Brazil.
  • In India, a Ministry of Human Resource Development was created in 1985 with the primary purpose of ensuring that the people of India are healthy, educated and motivated.


Density of Population

  • The number of the people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface is called population density.
  • Population density is calculated by dividing the number of people by area and is usually expressed as the number of people per square kilometre.
  • The average density of population in the whole world is 51 person per square km.
  • South Central Asia has the highest density of population followed by East and South East Asia.
  • Average density of population in India is 382 persons per sq km, which is one of the highest in the world.
  • The average density of population in the whole world is 45 persons per square kilometre.
  • Population density of a place depends on a range of geographical and socio-economic factors. 


Factor Affecting Distribution of Population

  1. Geographical Factors
    1. Topography: Most of the population resides in plain areas as it provides better condition to live. People prefer to live on plains because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities.
    2. Climate: People prefer to live in moderate climate and avoid very hot or very cold climates.
    3. Soil:Areas with fertile soil are densely populated as the land there is suitable for agriculture.
    4. Water: Easy availability of fresh water also makes an area habitable.
    5. Minerals:Areas which have more mineral resources present are more populated.

  2. Social, Cultural and Economic Factors
    1. Social: Areas that have better housing, health and education facilities are more populated.
    2. Cultural: Places like Vatican City or Jerusalem that have religious or cultural significance also attract people.
    3. Economic: Politically stable country provides better living conditions to people hence has more population. Industrial areas attract more people since they can provide more employment opportunities. Osaka in Japan and Mumbai in India are both densely populated areas.


Population Change

  • Population change refers to the change in the number of people, during a specific time, due to birth, death and migration.
  • Life expectancy is the number of years that an average person can expect to live.
  • The imbalance in the birth rate and the death rate is the major cause of the sudden change in the world’s population.
    • Birth rate is the number of live babies born in a year for every 1000 people in the total population. 
    • Death rate is the number of people dying per 1000 people.
    • The difference in the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate.
    • There is no natural growth if birth rate and death rate are at the same level. 
  • A rapid increase in population is referred to as population explosion. If the birth rate is more than the death rate then there is an increase in population.
  • A decrease in population is known as depopulation. If the death rate is more than the birth rate then there is a decrease in the population.
  • The movement of people into and out of an area can also change the size of a population in that area. This movement is called migration.
    • People who leave a country are called emigrants.
    • People who arrive in a country are called immigrants.
    • The main reason behind international migrations is search for better employment opportunities.


Pattern of Population Change

  • The pattern of population growth varies from country to country.
  • Not all countries experience the population growth even though the world’s total population is increasing at a fast pace.
  • The present population of the world is 7.6 billion and is expected to be rise to 9.6 billion by 2050.
  • By 2020 India is expected to surpass the population of China.


Population Composition

  • Population composition is the structure of the population with various aspects such as sex, age, literacy level, health condition, occupation and income level.
  • The development of a country depends on the quality of the people that comprise the population. The quality of the people can be determined by studying their
    • age
    • gender
    • literacy level
    • health condition
    • occupation
    • income level
  • The population structure of a country helps us determine the number of males and females, and their age groups.
  • Population pyramid or an age-sex pyramid is the most common method of showing the population structure.
    1. It shows the distribution of males and females in a country by their age groups.
    2. The total population is divided into various groups and the percentage of the total population is subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.
    3. The population pyramid shows
      • young dependents (aged below 15 years) at the bottom and reflects the level of births
      • elderly dependents (aged over 65 years) at the top and reflects the level of deaths
      • The working class are in the middle group and constitute the economically active segment.
  • The shape of population pyramid shows the people living in that particular country.
  • A pyramid broad at the base indicates the percentage of young people is high while a pyramid becoming narrow at the top indicates a high death rate.
  • Different countries show different patterns of population pyramids.
  • In Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base. Decreased death rates allow numbers of people to reach old age.
  • India shows the pyramid which is broad at the base and thick in middle and tapper towards end. It means India has a healthy population at middle age which shows the availability of human resource.
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