Class VIII Geography

Chapter - 3 Mineral and Power Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography

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Chapter end exercise
Q 1.

Answer the following questions:

  1. Name any three common minerals used by you every day.
  2. What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
  3. Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.
  4. Which sources of energy would you suggest for
    1. rural areas
    2. coastal areas
    3. Arid regions
  5. Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.
  1. Salt, aluminum and iron.
  2. Minerals rich in a particular element that can be extracted profitably is known as ores. Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus. While others occur in sedimentary rocks.
  3. Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the regions in the world rich in natural gas. In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai are rich in natural gas resources.
  4. The sources of energy according to area are as follows:
    1. Rural Areas: The biogas is one of the best sources of energy as per its availability and cost.
    2. Coastal Areas: Hydel and tidal energy.
    3. Arid Regions: Wind and solar energy as per speed of air and availability of sunlight.
  5. The way to save energy at home are as follows:
    1. Switch on the appliances (bulb, fans, AC, etc.) only on requirement.
    2. Using led bulbs and tube which provides more light consuming less energy.
    3. Use efficient cooking or heating devices.
    4. Prevent leakage of electricity to save energy.
    5. Switching off all electrical objects in an empty rooms.
Chapter end exercise
Q 2.

Tick the correct answer:

  1. Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals?
    1. They are created by natural processes.
    2. They have a definite chemical composition.
    3. They are inexhaustible.
    4. Their distribution is uneven.
  2. Which one of the following is NOT a producer of mica?
    1. Jharkhand
    2. Karnataka
    3. Rajasthan
    4. Andhra Pradesh
  3. Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?
    1. Bolivia
    2. Ghana
    3. Chile
    4. Zimbabwe
  4. Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen?
    1. Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.
    2. Cooking food in a pressure cooker.
    3. Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.
    4. Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.


(i) (c) They are inexhaustible
(ii) (b) Karnataka
(iii) (c) Chile
(iv) (d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.

Chapter end exercise
Q 3.

Give reasons:

  1. Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
  2. Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
  3. Petroleum is referred to as "black gold".
  4. Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.
  1. Building a dam faces a lot of environmental issues given below:
    1. It creates an imbalance in the Earth's equilibrium leading earthquake threats.
    2. Large area of vegetation submerged under the water.
    3. Vegetation under the water decay under anaerobic condition realising greenhouse gases.
    4. Flood threats loom large.
    5. A huge population become displaced.
  2. Coal is used as main source of energy in most of the industries that is why the most industries are concentrated around coal mines saving the cost of transportation of coal.
  3. The crude form of petroleum is thick and black. It is sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.
  4. Quarrying can become a major environmental concern because it may destroy the humus of soil which is much required for the growth of plants. It produces a lot of noise pollution due to use of explosives in order to break the huge chunks of rocks. During this process a lot of dust is also generated which causes air pollution.

Chapter end exercise
Q 4.

Distinguish between the followings:

  1. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
  2. Biogas and natural gas
  3. Ferrous and nonferrous minerals
  4. Metallic and non-metallic minerals


(i) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy

S.NO. Conventional Sources of Energy Non-Conventional Source of Energy
1. These have been in common use for a long time. These are not commonly used.
2. These are generally exhaustible. These are generally inexhaustible.
3. These are responsible for pollution. These are mostly pollution free.
4. Example: Firewood, coal, etc. Example: Solar energy, wind energy, etc.

(ii) Biogas and natural gas

S.No. Biogas Natural Gas
1. It is a non-conventional source of energy. It is a conventional source of energy.
2. It is prepared from organic wastes such as dead and decaying plants, animal dung, etc. It is obtained from petroleum deposits and get released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
3. It is easily available even in remote areas. It is obtained using certain process.
4. It releases polluting gases on burning. It is creates less pollution.
5 It is used as domestic fuel for cooking. It is used for domestic as well as industrial purposes.


(iii) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals

S.No. Ferrous Minerals Non-Ferrous Minerals
1. These are iron containing minerals. These are non-ironic minerals.
2. Example: Iron ore, manganese and chromites. Example: Ores containing gold, silver, lead and copper.


(iv) Metallic and non-metallic minerals

S.No. Metallic Minerals Non-Metallic Minerals
1. A mineral containing metals in raw form. A mineral not containing metals.
2. Example: Iron ore, manganese, etc. Example: Limestone, gypsum, etc.


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