Class VIII Geography

Chapter - 4 Agriculture

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography

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Chapter end exercise
Q 1.

Answer the following questions:
(i) What is agriculture?
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.


(i) Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. Two-thirds of India's population is dependent on agriculture. It is also called farming.

(ii) The main factors influences the agriculture are climate, quality of soil and favourable topography.

(iii) In shifting cultivation a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as 'slash and burn' agriculture.Deforestation, losing fertility of land and soil erosion are the disadvantages of shifting cultivation.

(iv) Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown investing a large amount of labour and capital. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

(v) Jute and cotton are known as fiber crops. The climatic conditions for their growth are as follows:

S.No. Fiber Crops Climate Conditions
1. Jute (Golden Fiber) High temperature (Greater than 250C), heavy rainfall, warm and humid.
2. Cotton High temperature (300C — 400C), bright sunshine, low rainfall and clear sky (Cloud free sunny day).


Chapter end exercise
Q 2.

Tick the correct answer:

  1. Horticulture means
    1. growing of fruits and vegetables
    2. primitive farming
    3. growing of wheat
  2. Golden fibre refers to
    1. tea
    2. cotton
    3. jute
  3. Leading producers of coffee
    1. Brazil
    2. India
    3. Russia


(i) (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) (c) Jute
(iii) (a) Brazil

Chapter end exercise
Q 3.

Give reasons:
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.


(i) Two-thirds of India's population is still dependent on agriculture. That is why in India agriculture is a primary activity.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions because the favourable topography of soil and climate condition varies greatly in different regions. Also the type of crops depends upon the geographical conditions, demand of consumers and level of technology.

Chapter end exercise
Q 4.

Distinguish between the followings:
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.


(i) Primary Activities and Tertiary Activities

S.NO. Primary Activities Tertiary Activities
1. Connected with the extraction and production of natural resources. Provide support to the primary and secondary sectors.
2. Example: Agriculture, fishing, etc. Example: Services such as banking, transport, etc.


(ii) Subsistence farming and Intensive farming

S.NO. Subsistence Farming Intensive Farming
1. Practised to meet the needs of the farmer's family. In this kind of farming, crops are grown for commercial purposes
2. It involves the use of low level technology and household labour for producing a small output. It involves the annual cultivation of a large land using tools and more labour.
3. In this kind of farming, more than one crop is cultivated in the agricultural field. Generally one crop is cultivated.


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