Class VIII Geography

Chapter - 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography

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Chapter end exercise
Q 1.

Answer the following questions:
(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?
(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.
(iii) Why is land considered an important resource?
(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.
(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.


(i) Temperature and rainfall are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.

(ii) Deforestation and increasing use of chemicals (pesticides and fertilisers) in agricultural land are two factors responsible for land degradation.

(iii) Land provides habitation to a wide variety of plants and animals. It is also being used by human being for agriculture, mining, forest resources and building houses and roads.
That is why, it is considered as an important resource.

(iv) The following two important steps taken by government are

Government set up national park, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves for protecting natural vegetation and wildlife.

  • It has banned the killing of lions, tigers, deer, great Indian bustards and peacocks.
  • It has prohibited the trade of the species of plants and animals protected under the international  agreements CITES.


(v) The suggestions for conserving waters are as follows:

  • Rain water harvesting.
  • Replenishing ground water by promoting afforestation.
  • Reducing the wastage of water, making more aware the people.

Chapter end exercise
Q 2.

Tick the correct answer:
(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation?

  1. time
  2. soil texture
  3. organic matter

(ii) Which one ofthe following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?

  1. shelter belts
  2. mulching
  3. terrace cultivation

(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature?

  1. switch off the bulb when not in use
  2. close the tap immediately after using
  3. dispose polypacks after shopping

(i) (b) Soil texture

(ii) (c) Terrace cultivation

(iii) (c) Dispose polypacks after shopping

Chapter end exercise
Q 3.

Match the following:

i. Land use (a) prevent soil erosion
ii. Humus (b) land suitable for agriculture
iii. Rock dams (c) productive use of land
iv. Arable land (d) organic matter deposited on top soil

(e) contour ploughing




i. Land use (c) productive use of land
ii. Humus (d) organic matter deposited on top soil
iii. Rock dams (a) prevent soil erosion
iv. Arable land (b) land suitable for agriculture


Chapter end exercise
Q 4.

State whether the given statement is true of false. If true, write the reasons.
(i) Ganga-Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.
(ii) Water availability per person in India is declining.
(iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping.
(iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.


(i) True.
Reason: Plains and river valleys regions are always good for agriculture. So, these are densely populated areas of the world.

(ii) True
Reason: Due to increase in population the demand of water and deforestation alsoincreases which reduces the fresh water reserves (like rivers and ground water). So, the availability of water is being declining.

(iii) False
Reason: Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas is called shelter belts. It protect the soil from rain washout.

(iv) False
Reason: The human interference and changes of climate affect adversely the balance of the ecosystem.

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